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Salt Tolerance and Crop Potential of Halophytes

Salt Tolerance and Crop Potential of Halophytes,10.1016/S0735-2689(99)00388-3,Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences,Edward P. Glenn,J. Jed Brown,Eduardo

Salt Tolerance and Crop Potential of Halophytes   (Citations: 145)
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Although they represent only 2% of terrestrial plant species, halophytes are present in about half the higher plant families and represent a wide diversity of plant forms. Despite their polyphyletic origins, halophytes appear to have evolved the same basic method of osmotic adjustment: accumulation of inorganic salts, mainly NaCl, in the vacuole and accumulation of organic solutes in the cytoplasm. Differences between halophyte and gly- cophyte ion transport systems are becoming apparent. The pathways by which Na + and Cl - enters halophyte cells are not well understood but may involve ion channels and pinocytosis, in addition to Na + and Cl - transporters. Na + uptake into vacuoles requires Na + /H + antiporters in the tonoplast and H + ATPases and perhaps PP i ases to provide the proton motive force. Tonoplast antiporters are constitutive in halophytes, whereas they must be activated by NaCl in salt-tolerant glycophytes, and they may be absent from salt-sensitive glycophytes. Halophyte vacuoles may have a modified lipid composition to prevent leakage of Na + back to the cytoplasm. Becuase of their diversity, halophytes have been regarded as a rich source of potential new crops. Halophytes have been tested as vegetable, forage, and oilseed crops in agronomic field trials. The most productive species yield 10 to 20 ton/ha of biomass on seawater irrigation, equivalent to conventional crops. The oilseed halophyte, Sali- cornia bigelovii , yields 2 t/ha of seed containing 28% oil and 31% protein, similar to soybean yield and seed qual- ity. Halophytes grown on seawater require a leaching fraction to control soil salts, but at lower salinities they outperform conventional crops in yield and water use efficiency. Halophyte forage and seed products can replace conventional ingredients in animal feeding systems, with some restrictions on their use due to high salt content and antinutritional compounds present in some species. Halophytes have applications in recycling saline agricultural wastewater and reclaiming salt-affected soil in arid-zone irrigation districts.
Journal: Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences - CRIT REV PLANT SCI , vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 227-255, 1999
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    • ...antiporter provides an efficient way to avert the deleterious effects of Na ? in the cytosol and maintains osmotic balance by using Na ? (and Cl - ) accumulated in the vacuole to drive water into the cells [5]...

    Bo Guanet al. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of a vacuolar Na + ...

    • ...We validate the model using data on groundwater salinity (1999 to 2010) to examine the rate of seawater intrusion in coastal Everglades, and use data from coastal plant communities along the gradient in elevation to compare species abundances of glycophytes (salt-sensitive) and halophytes (salt-tolerant, sensu Glenn et al. 1999) between 1998 and 2009...

    Amartya K. Sahaet al. Sea level rise and South Florida coastal forests

    • ...Understanding the mechanisms by which halophytes thrive and maintain growth and productivity in harsh environments can lead to identifying the reasons of salt sensitivity of crop plants and consequently developing proper breeding programs for salt and drought tolerance (Glenn et al. 1999)...
    • ...Salinity imposes ionic (due to accumulation of toxic ions in plant tissues) as well as osmotic effects on plant (Niu et al. 1995; Yeo 1998; Glenn et al. 1999) that reduce the growth depending on the sensitivity of the plant to either component of salt stress (Munns 1993; Yeo 1998)...

    Abdel Hamid A. Khedret al. A DREB gene from the xero-halophyte Atriplex halimus is induced by osm...

    • ...On the other hand, the term halophytes refers to salt tolerant plants that grow on saline soils and have increased growth at low salt concentrations, with decreased growth at much higher concentrations (Glenn, Brown, and Blumwald, 1999; Orcutt and Nilsen, 2000; Barrett-Lennard, 2002; Tester and Davenport, 2003)...

    Eleni Manousakiet al. HALOPHYTES—AN EMERGING TREND IN PHYTOREMEDIATION

    • ...(1999) showed that Atriplex nummularia can achieve a biomass yield of 20 to 30 t ha−1 year−1 and accumulate up to 40% NaCl based on its dry matter...

    Mohammad Rezvaniet al. Uptake and translocation of cadmium and nutrients by Aelorupus littora...

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